Databases

Connecting Oracle database in CodeIgniter

Option 01:

$active_group = 'default';
$query_builder = TRUE;

$db['default'] = array(
    'dsn'   => '',
    'hostname' => '192.168.0.109:1521/orcl', //hostname:db_port/service_name
    //'hostname' => 'localhost:1521/orcl',
    'username' => 'db_username', 
    'password' => 'db_password', 
    'database' => 'db_name',
    'dbdriver' => 'oci8',
    'dbprefix' => '',
    'pconnect' => FALSE,
    'db_debug' => (ENVIRONMENT !== 'production'),
    'cache_on' => FALSE,
    'cachedir' => '',
    'char_set' => 'utf8',
    'dbcollat' => 'utf8_general_ci',
    'swap_pre' => '',
    'encrypt' => FALSE,
    'compress' => FALSE,
    'stricton' => FALSE,
    'failover' => array(),
    'save_queries' => TRUE
);


Option 02:

$active_group = 'default';
$active_record = TRUE;
$db['default']['hostname'] = '(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=192.168.0.246)(PORT=1521))(CONNECT_DATA=(SID=orcl)))';
$db['default']['username'] = 'db_username';
$db['default']['password'] = 'db_password';
$db['default']['database'] = 'db_name';
$db['default']['dbdriver'] = 'oci8';
$db['default']['dbprefix'] = '';
$db['default']['pconnect'] = TRUE;
$db['default']['db_debug'] = TRUE;
$db['default']['cache_on'] = FALSE;
$db['default']['cachedir'] = '';
$db['default']['char_set'] = 'utf8';
$db['default']['dbcollat'] = 'utf8_general_ci';
$db['default']['swap_pre'] = '';
$db['default']['autoinit'] = TRUE;
$db['default']['stricton'] = FALSE;

Connecting to POSTGRESQL in CodeIgniter 3

First enable Postgresql extension in php.ini

extension=php_pgsql.dll

You also can enable Postgresql extension for PDO as well.

extension=php_pdo_pgsql.dll


$db['default'] = array(
    'port'   => 5432, # Add 
);

OR

$db['default'] = array(
    'dsn'   => 'pgsql:host=localhost;port=5432;dbname=database_name', 
    'dbdriver' => 'pdo',
);
 

$active_group = ‘default’;
$query_builder = TRUE;

$db[‘default’] = array(
‘dsn’ => ”,
‘hostname’ => ‘localhost’,
‘username’ => ‘postgres’,
‘password’ => ”,
‘database’ => ‘fmsdb’,
‘dbdriver’ => ‘postgre’,
‘dbprefix’ => ”,
‘pconnect’ => FALSE,
‘db_debug’ => (ENVIRONMENT !== ‘production’),
‘cache_on’ => FALSE,
‘cachedir’ => ”,
‘char_set’ => ‘utf8’,
‘dbcollat’ => ‘utf8_general_ci’,
‘swap_pre’ => ”,
‘encrypt’ => FALSE,
‘compress’ => FALSE,
‘stricton’ => FALSE,
‘failover’ => array(),
‘save_queries’ => TRUE
);

How to install MySQL server on CentOS 8 Linux

How do I install MySQL server 8.0 on CentOS 8 Linux server running on Linode and AWS cloud? How do I add and set up a new MySQL user and database account on the newly created CentOS server?

Oracle MySQL server version 8.0 is a free and open-source free database server. It is one of the most popular database system used in web apps and websites on the Internet.

Typically MySQL is part of the LAMP (Linux, Apache/Nginx, MySQL, Perl/Python/PHP) stack. Popular open-source software such as WordPress, MediaWiki, and others profoundly used by MySQL as a database storage engine. Let us see how to install MySQL server version 8.x on CentOS 8 Linux server.

How to install MySQL server on a CentOS 8

First, open the terminal app and then log in to your CentOS server using the ssh command:
$ ssh vivek@centos-8-ec2-box-ip
Now, update CentOS system to apply security updates and fixes on Linux system using the dnf command/yum command:
$ sudo yum update
## or ##
$ sudo dnf update

Sample outputs:

CentOS-8 - AppStream                            21 MB/s | 5.8 MB     00:00    
CentOS-8 - Base                                 14 MB/s | 2.2 MB     00:00    
CentOS-8 - Extras                               50 kB/s | 8.6 kB     00:00    
Dependencies resolved.
Nothing to do.
Complete!

Step 1 – Installing MySQL 8 server

Luckily our CentOS 8 box comes with MySQL 8 server package. Let us search for it:
$ sudo yum search mysql-server
$ sudo yum module list mysql

And we see:

Last metadata expiration check: 0:02:47 ago on Mon Nov 23 16:26:31 2020.
===================== Name Exactly Matched: mysql-server ======================
mysql-server.x86_64 : The MySQL server and related files

Next, find out version information, run:
$ sudo yum info mysql-server
Here is what we see:

Last metadata expiration check: 0:02:22 ago on Mon Nov 23 16:26:31 2020.
Available Packages
Name         : mysql-server
Version      : 8.0.21
Release      : 1.module_el8.2.0+493+63b41e36
Architecture : x86_64
Size         : 22 M
Source       : mysql-8.0.21-1.module_el8.2.0+493+63b41e36.src.rpm
Repository   : AppStream
Summary      : The MySQL server and related files
URL          : http://www.mysql.com
License      : GPLv2 with exceptions and LGPLv2 and BSD
Description  : MySQL is a multi-user, multi-threaded SQL database server. MySQL
             : is a client/server implementation consisting of a server daemon
             : (mysqld) and many different client programs and libraries. This
             : package contains the MySQL server and some accompanying files
             : and directories.

Install it:
$ sudo yum install mysql-server

How to install MySQL 8 on CentOS 8 Linux

Click to enlarge

Step 2 – Enabling MySQL 8 mysqld.service,server

The service name is mysqld.service, and we need to enable it using the following systemctl command:
$ sudo systemctl enable mysqld.service
Confirmation displayed:

reated symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mysqld.service → /usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service.

Start the service and then verify it:
$ sudo systemctl start mysqld.service
$ sudo systemctl status mysqld.service

 mysqld.service - MySQL 8.0 database server
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Mon 2020-11-23 16:50:14 UTC; 4s ago
  Process: 551 ExecStopPost=/usr/libexec/mysql-wait-stop (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 681 ExecStartPost=/usr/libexec/mysql-check-upgrade (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 601 ExecStartPre=/usr/libexec/mysql-prepare-db-dir mysqld.service (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 577 ExecStartPre=/usr/libexec/mysql-check-socket (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 637 (mysqld)
   Status: "Server is operational"
    Tasks: 39 (limit: 24960)
   Memory: 331.0M
   CGroup: /system.slice/mysqld.service
           └─637 /usr/libexec/mysqld --basedir=/usr

Nov 23 16:50:13 centos-aws-mysql systemd[1]: Stopped MySQL 8.0 database server.
Nov 23 16:50:13 centos-aws-mysql systemd[1]: Starting MySQL 8.0 database server...
Nov 23 16:50:14 centos-aws-mysql systemd[1]: Started MySQL 8.0 database server.

Step 3 – Securing MySQL 8 server

All you need to do is type the following command, and it will secure MySQL 8 server installation on CentOS Linux:
$ sudo mysql_secure_installation

Please set the password for root here.

New password: 

Re-enter new password: 

Estimated strength of the password: 100 
Do you wish to continue with the password provided?(Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user,
allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have
a user account created for them. This is intended only for
testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother.
You should remove them before moving into a production
environment.

Remove anonymous users? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.


Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from
'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at
the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that
anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing,
and should be removed before moving into a production
environment.


Remove test database and access to it? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
 - Dropping test database...
Success.

 - Removing privileges on test database...
Success.

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes
made so far will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.

All done! 

Step 4 – Starting/Stopping/Restarting MySQL 8 server

The syntax is:
$ sudo systemctl start mysql.service
$ sudo systemctl stop mysql.service
$ sudo systemctl restart mysql.service

To view the MySQL 8 service log as follows using the journalctl command:
$ sudo journalctl -u mysqld.service -xe
$ sudo tail -f /var/log/mysql/mysqld.log

MySQL 8 log file sample entries:

2020-11-23T16:55:19.101316Z 0 [System] [MY-013172] [Server] Received SHUTDOWN from user . Shutting down mysqld (Version: 8.0.21).
2020-11-23T16:55:21.728819Z 0 [Warning] [MY-010909] [Server] /usr/libexec/mysqld: Forcing close of thread 10  user: 'root'.
2020-11-23T16:55:23.083389Z 0 [System] [MY-010910] [Server] /usr/libexec/mysqld: Shutdown complete (mysqld 8.0.21)  Source distribution.
2020-11-23T16:56:19.225544Z 0 [System] [MY-010116] [Server] /usr/libexec/mysqld (mysqld 8.0.21) starting as process 524
2020-11-23T16:56:19.237500Z 1 [System] [MY-013576] [InnoDB] InnoDB initialization has started.
2020-11-23T16:56:19.562441Z 1 [System] [MY-013577] [InnoDB] InnoDB initialization has ended.
2020-11-23T16:56:19.677202Z 0 [System] [MY-011323] [Server] X Plugin ready for connections. Bind-address: '::' port: 33060, socket: /var/lib/mysql/mysqlx.sock
2020-11-23T16:56:19.754024Z 0 [Warning] [MY-010068] [Server] CA certificate ca.pem is self signed.
2020-11-23T16:56:19.754207Z 0 [System] [MY-013602] [Server] Channel mysql_main configured to support TLS. Encrypted connections are now supported for this channel.
2020-11-23T16:56:19.780843Z 0 [System] [MY-010931] [Server] /usr/libexec/mysqld: ready for connections. Version: '8.0.21'  socket: '/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock'  port: 3306  Source distribution.

Step 5 – Testing MySQL 8 installation

So far, so good. You learned how to install, set up, secure, and start/stop the MySQL 8 on CentOS 8 Linux cloud server. It is time to log in as a
mysql root user. The syntax is:
$ mysql -u root -p
$ mysql -u USER -h host -p
$ mysql -u USER -h host -p mysql

Let us type a few SQL commands at the mysql> prompt:
STATUS;
SHOW VARIABLES LIKE "%version%";
quit

Testing MySQL on CentOS 8

Step 6 – Creating a new MySQL 8 database and user account with password

Let create a new database called ‘spacedb‘, type at the mysql> prompt:
CREATE DATABASE spacedb;
Next, we are going to create a new user named ‘mars‘ for our database called ‘spacedb’ as follows:
CREATE USER 'mars'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'User_Password_Here';
Finally, give permissions:
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON spacedb.* TO 'mars'@'%';
Of course, we can grant ALL PRIVILEGES too as follows:
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON spacedb.* TO 'mars'@'%';
See MySQL 8 users and their grants/permissions as follows:
SELECT user,host FROM mysql.user;
SHOW GRANTS for mars;
quit

Test new user settings and DB as follows:
mysql -u mars -p spacedb
mysql -u mars -h localhost -p spacedb

Creating MySQL 8 database with user and password on CentOS 8

Where,

  • -u mars; : User name for login
  • -h localhost : Connect to server named localhost
  • -p : Prompt for password
  • spacedb : Connect to database named spacedb

Step 7 – Configuring MySQL 8 server on a CentOS 8

Let us see default config file using the cat command:
# cat /etc/my.cnf.d/mysql-server.cnf
Config:

[mysqld]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql
socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
log-error=/var/log/mysql/mysqld.log
pid-file=/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid

Want to allow remote connections to your MySQL server? Edit the /etc/my.cnf.d/mysql-server.cnf and append the following line under [mysqld]:
bind_address = 0.0.0.0

WARNING: See MySQL documentation for a detailed explanation for tuning options as to each server and set up is unique. Do not set up values blindly. I provide them as a starting point for optimizing MySQL 8 installation and values depending upon available RAM, CPU cores, server load and other circumstances.

Set InnoDB settings:

default_storage_engine          = InnoDB
innodb_buffer_pool_instances    = 1
innodb_buffer_pool_size         = 512M
innodb_file_per_table           = 1
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit  = 0
innodb_flush_method             = O_DIRECT
innodb_log_buffer_size          = 16M
innodb_log_file_size            = 512M
innodb_stats_on_metadata        = 0
innodb_read_io_threads          = 64
innodb_write_io_threads         = 64

MyISAM settings:

# UPD
key_buffer_size                 = 32M   
low_priority_updates            = 1
concurrent_insert               = 2
# UPD
max_connections                 = 100   
back_log                        = 512
thread_cache_size               = 100
thread_stack                    = 192K
interactive_timeout             = 180
wait_timeout                    = 180

Buffer settings UPD:

join_buffer_size                = 4M    
read_buffer_size                = 3M    
read_rnd_buffer_size            = 4M    
sort_buffer_size                = 4M

Edit and config logging if needed (by default slow_query disabled):

log_queries_not_using_indexes   = 1
long_query_time                 = 5
#slow_query_log                  = 0     
#slow_query_log_file             = /var/log/mysql/mysql_slow.log

This is useful for mysqldump command to make backups:

[mysqldump]
quick
quote_names
max_allowed_packet              = 64M

Step 8 – Firewall configuration to open MySQL server TCP port 3306

Are you using MySQL 8 server remotely? Do you have Apache/Nginx/PHP/Python/Perl app on another server? Then open port for everyone:
$ sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=mysql --permanent
Only allow access from 192.168.1.0/24 CIDR:
$ sudo firewall-cmd \
--add-rich-rule 'rule family="ipv4" \
source address="192.168.1.0/24" \
service name="mysql" accept' --permanent

The above is fine grained firewalld access rules to restrict access to MySQL 8 server to VLAN users only. See how to set up a firewall using FirewallD on CentOS 8 Linux for more info.

Conclusion

And there you have it, Oracle MySQL server version 8.x set up and running correctly on a CentOS Linux 8 server with Firewalld config. Further, you learned how to add a new database, user, and password for your project including MySQL 8 server tuning options.

Install Oracle Database 19c on CentOS 8 in VirtualBox

** Please use the root user to edit the files and execute the commands unless further notice. **

Prerequisite

  1. Install the latest VirtualBox Platform Package and the VirtualBox Extension Pack (Oracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-VERSION.vbox-extpack).
  2. Download the latest VirtualBox Guest Additions (VBoxGuestAdditions_VERSION.iso).
  3. Download the latest CentOS Stream 8.
  4. Create a new virtual machine and install the CentOS to the virtual machine. During the CentOS installation, select Workstation as Base Environment, select Container ManagementDevelopment Tools and Graphical Administration Tools as Additional software for Selected Environment. Use http://mirror.centos.org/centos/8/BaseOS/x86_64/os/ as the installation source.
  5. After installing the CentOS, execute the following commands to get the required libraries to create applications for handling compiled objects.
dnf update
dnf -y install elfutils-libelf-devel
  1. Insert the ISO of VirtualBox Guest Additions to the virtual machine, and then install it.

Download Packages and Software

Hostname and Host File

  1. Open the file /etc/hostname, change the content to update the hostname.
ol8-19.localdomain
  1. Open the file /etc/hosts, add your IP address and hostname.
192.168.122.1 ol8-19.localdomain

Install Required Packages

  1. Perform a dnf update to update every currently installed package.
dnf update
  1. Add execute permission to the downloaded rpm files.
chmod u+x *.rpm
  1. Install the libcapl library for getting and setting POSIX.1e (formerly POSIX 6) draft 15 capabilities.
dnf localinstall -y compat-libcap1-1.10-7.el7.x86_64.rpm
  1. Inatll the libstdc++ package which contains compatibility standard C++ library from GCC 3.3.4.
dnf localinstall -y compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-72.el7.x86_64.rpm
  1. Install the below required packages.
dnf install -y bc binutils elfutils-libelf elfutils-libelf-devel fontconfig-devel \
    gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc-devel ksh ksh libaio libaio-devel libgcc libnsl libnsl.i686 \
    libnsl2 libnsl2.i686 librdmacm-devel libstdc++ libstdc++-devel libX11 libXau libxcb \
    libXi libXrender libXrender-devel libXtst make net-tools nfs-utils smartmontools \
    sysstat targetcli unixODBC;

Install Oracle Installation Prerequisites

  1. Install the Oracle Installation Prerequisites (OIP) package.
dnf localinstall -y oracle-database-preinstall-19c-1.0-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
  1. Open the /etc/group file, update the GID of the below items.
oinstall:x:64890:oracle
dba:x:64891:oracle
oper:x:64892:oracle
backupdba:x:64893:oracle
dgdba:x:64894:oracle
kmdba:x:64895:oracle
racdba:x:64896:oracle
  1. Open the /etc/passwd file, update both the UID and GID of account oracle.
oracle:x:64890:64890::/home/oracle:/bin/bash
  1. Update the password of account oracle.
passwd oracle
  1. Set secure Linux to permissive by editing the /etc/selinux/config file.
SELINUX=permissive
  1. Set the secure Linux change right now.
setenforce Permissive
  1. Disable the firewall.
systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld

Setup Oracle User Profile

  1. Create Oracle directories.
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/19.3.0/dbhome_1
mkdir -p /u02/oradata
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01 /u02
chmod -R 775 /u01 /u02
  1. Create a new directory for Oracle user.
mkdir -p /home/oracle/scripts
chown -R oracle:oinstall /home/oracle
  1. Create an environment setting file.
cat > /home/oracle/scripts/setEnv.sh <<EOF
# Oracle Settings
export TMP=/tmp
export TMPDIR=\$TMP

export ORACLE_HOSTNAME=$HOSTNAME
export ORACLE_UNQNAME=cdb1
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
export ORACLE_HOME=\$ORACLE_BASE/product/19.3.0/dbhome_1
export ORA_INVENTORY=/u01/app/oraInventory
export ORACLE_SID=cdb1
export PDB_NAME=pdb1
export DATA_DIR=/u02/oradata

export PATH=/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:\$PATH
export PATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/bin:\$PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
export CLASSPATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:\$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib
EOF
  1. Create a startup shell script.
cat > /home/oracle/scripts/start_all.sh <<EOF
#!/bin/bash
. /home/oracle/scripts/setEnv.sh

export ORAENV_ASK=NO
. oraenv
export ORAENV_ASK=YES

dbstart \$ORACLE_HOME
EOF
  1. Create a stop shell script.
cat > /home/oracle/scripts/stop_all.sh <<EOF
#!/bin/bash
. /home/oracle/scripts/setEnv.sh

export ORAENV_ASK=NO
. oraenv
export ORAENV_ASK=YES

dbshut \$ORACLE_HOME
EOF
  1. Update the owner and permission of the shell scripts and its parent directory.
chown -R oracle:oinstall /home/oracle
chmod u+x /home/oracle/scripts/*.sh
  1. Set the environment when the Bash runs whenever it is started interactively.
cat > /home/oracle/.bashrc <<EOF
#.bashrc

# User specific aliases and functions

alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'

# Source global definitions
if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then
  . /etc/bashrc
fi

. /home/oracle/scripts/setEnv.sh >> /home/oracle/.bashrc
EOF

chown oracle:oinstall /home/oracle/.bashrc

Create and Add New Swap File

  1. Run the following command, with oracle user, to create and apply new swap file.
dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/additional-swap bs=1048576 count=4096
chmod 600 /tmp/additional-swap
mkswap /tmp/additional-swap
  1. Apply the swap by executing the following command with root user.
swapon /tmp/additional-swap

Install Oracle Database

  1. Set the DISPLAY variable with oracle user.
DISPLAY=$HOSTNAME:0.0; export DISPLAY
  1. Unzip the archive with oracle user.
cd $ORACLE_HOME
unzip -oq /path/to/software/LINUX.X64_193000_db_home.zip
  1. “Cheat” the installer about the distribution with oracle user.
export CV_ASSUME_DISTID=RHEL7.6
  1. Run the installer, with oracle user, to install Oracle database.
cd $ORACLE_HOME
./runInstaller -ignorePrereq -waitforcompletion -silent                        \
    -responseFile ${ORACLE_HOME}/install/response/db_install.rsp               \
    oracle.install.option=INSTALL_DB_SWONLY                                    \
    ORACLE_HOSTNAME=${ORACLE_HOSTNAME}                                         \
    UNIX_GROUP_NAME=oinstall                                                   \
    INVENTORY_LOCATION=${ORA_INVENTORY}                                        \
    SELECTED_LANGUAGES=en,en_GB                                                \
    ORACLE_HOME=${ORACLE_HOME}                                                 \
    ORACLE_BASE=${ORACLE_BASE}                                                 \
    oracle.install.db.InstallEdition=EE                                        \
    oracle.install.db.OSDBA_GROUP=dba                                          \
    oracle.install.db.OSBACKUPDBA_GROUP=dba                                    \
    oracle.install.db.OSDGDBA_GROUP=dba                                        \
    oracle.install.db.OSKMDBA_GROUP=dba                                        \
    oracle.install.db.OSRACDBA_GROUP=dba                                       \
    SECURITY_UPDATES_VIA_MYORACLESUPPORT=false                                 \
    DECLINE_SECURITY_UPDATES=true
  1. If the setup is success, the following message should be printed on screen.
Successfully Setup Software.
  1. Execute the below scripts, with root user, to update the permission of Oracle directories and set the environment variables.
/u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
/u01/app/oracle/product/19.3.0/dbhome_1/root.sh

Database Creation

  1. Start the listener with oracle user.
lsnrctl start
  1. Create a database with oracle user.
dbca -silent -createDatabase                                                   \
     -templateName General_Purpose.dbc                                         \
     -gdbname ${ORACLE_SID} -sid  ${ORACLE_SID} -responseFile NO_VALUE         \
     -characterSet AL32UTF8                                                    \
     -sysPassword SysPassword1                                                 \
     -systemPassword SysPassword1                                              \
     -createAsContainerDatabase true                                           \
     -numberOfPDBs 1                                                           \
     -pdbName ${PDB_NAME}                                                      \
     -pdbAdminPassword PdbPassword1                                            \
     -databaseType MULTIPURPOSE                                                \
     -automaticMemoryManagement false                                          \
     -totalMemory 1000                                                         \
     -storageType FS                                                           \
     -datafileDestination "${DATA_DIR}"                                        \
     -redoLogFileSize 50                                                       \
     -emConfiguration NONE                                                     \
     -ignorePreReqs

Listener Update

  1. Replace or edit the listener.ora file, with oracle user, to set the correct hostname, port number and SID name.
cat > /u01/app/oracle/product/19.3.0/dbhome_1/network/admin/listener.ora <<EOF
LISTENER =
  (DESCRIPTION_LIST =
    (DESCRIPTION =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(PORT = 1539))
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC1521))
    )
  )

SID_LIST_LISTENER =
  (SID_LIST =
    (SID_DESC =
      (SID_NAME = ${ORACLE_SID})
    )
  )

EOF
  1. Reload the Oracle Listener.
lsnrctl reload

Post Installation

  1. Edit the /etc/oratab file, with root user, to update the restart flag from ‘N‘ to ‘Y‘.
orcl:/u01/app/oracle/product/19.3.0/dbhome_1:Y
  1. Configure the Database instance “orcl” with auto startup.
cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
ln -s spfilecdb1.ora initorcl.ora
  1. Enable Oracle Managed Files (OMF) and make sure the PDB starts when the instance starts.
sqlplus / as sysdba <<EOF
alter system set db_create_file_dest='${DATA_DIR}';
alter pluggable database ${PDB_NAME} save state;
exit;
EOF
  1. Execute the following commands, with root user, to start the Oracle Listener automatically.
cat > /home/oracle/scripts/cron.sh <<EOF1
#!/bin/bash

. /home/oracle/scripts/setEnv.sh

echo "\`date\`" > /home/oracle/scripts/last.log

lsnrctl start

sleep 3

lsnrctl reload

sleep 3

sqlplus /nolog <
conn / as sysdba
startup
EOF

EOF1

chown oracle:oinstall /home/oracle/scripts/cron.sh
chmod 744 /home/oracle/scripts/cron.sh
  1. Use the following command, with oracle user, to edit the crontab file.
crontab -e
  1. Put the following cron job in the first line of crontab file, then press the keys :wq to save and exit.
@reboot /home/oracle/scripts/cron.sh

Healthcheck

  1. Login as oracle user and then execute the following commands one-by-one.
sqlplus /nolog
conn / as sysdba;
select * from v$version;
show pdbs;

Create New User and Tablespace

  1. Login as Sysdba with SqlPlus.
sqlplus / as sysdba
  1. Update the seesion setting _ORACLE_SCRIPT to true to allow common user comes without c## as prefix.
ALTER SESSION SET "_ORACLE_SCRIPT"=true;
  1. Create a new tablespace with an automatic extensible size 100MB, maximum 10G in size.
-- DROP TABLESPACE my_tablespace INCLUDING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES;
-- Location of the dat file: /u01/app/oracle/product/19.3.0/dbhome_1/dbs/my_tablespace.dat
-- SELECT tablespace_name, block_size, max_size, status FROM DBA_TABLESPACES;
CREATE TABLESPACE my_tablespace
  DATAFILE 'my_tablespace.dat'
    SIZE 100M
    AUTOEXTEND ON
    NEXT 32M MAXSIZE 10G
    EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL
    SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT AUTO
;

SELECT FILE_ID, FILE_NAME, TABLESPACE_NAME, AUTOEXTENSIBLE, INCREMENT_BY 
FROM DBA_DATA_FILES ORDER BY FILE_ID DESC;
  1. [Optional] Update the password life time from 180 days (default) to unlimited.
ALTER PROFILE DEFAULT LIMIT PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME UNLIMITED;
  1. Create a new user.
-- ALTER SESSION SET "_ORACLE_SCRIPT"=true;
-- DROP USER newuser CASCADE;
CREATE USER newuser IDENTIFIED BY "P@ssw0rd" DEFAULT TABLESPACE my_tablespace;
  1. Grant permissions to the new user.
-- REVOKE CREATE SESSION FROM newuser;
-- REVOKE CREATE TABLE FROM newuser;
-- REVOKE CREATE VIEW FROM newuser;
-- REVOKE CREATE ANY TRIGGER FROM newuser;
-- REVOKE CREATE ANY PROCEDURE FROM newuser;
-- REVOKE CREATE SEQUENCE FROM newuser;
-- REVOKE CREATE SYNONYM FROM newuser;
GRANT CREATE SESSION TO newuser;
GRANT CREATE TABLE TO newuser;
GRANT CREATE VIEW TO newuser;
GRANT CREATE ANY TRIGGER TO newuser;
GRANT CREATE ANY PROCEDURE TO newuser;
GRANT CREATE SEQUENCE TO newuser;
GRANT CREATE SYNONYM TO newuser;

ALTER USER newuser QUOTA UNLIMITED ON my_tablespace;
  1. [Optional] Grant DBA to the new user.
-- REVOKE DBA FROM newuser;
GRANT DBA TO newuser;

References

How to Permanently Activate Windows 10 with CMD

Without third-party Windows 10 activation tools, you can activate Windows 10 with CMD for free. Here we’ll introduce how to activate Windows Enterprise edition with CMD.

Step 1. You can press Windows + R key on the keyboard to open Windows Run box. Type cmd, and press Ctrl + Shift + Enter to open and run Windows Command Prompt as administrator.

Step 2. After you enter into Windows 10 Command Prompt, you can copy and paste this command line: slmgr.vbs /upk, in the Command Prompt window. Hit Enter to execute the command.

Step 3. Next you can copy and paste this command line and hit Enter to install the Windows 10 product key: slmgr /ipk NPPR9-FWDCX-D2C8J-H872K-2YT43.

Step 4. Then you can type slmgr /skms zh.us.to command line and hit Enter.

Step 5. At last, copy and paste slmgr /ato and hit Enter to activate Windows 10 for free with CMD.

VMWare Workstation 9 & 10

VMWare Workstation 9 Keys:

HA2VM-220EP-3ZAN8-JR156-8CNHD
1V6JV-60H84-LZXV0-028G2-CA2HD
0V0HD-641E4-FZWK0-UH1EM-CAEP1
NG25P-AW2DN-RZ1V0-K8252-ACY0P
1V22N-4LK8H-TZ1N9-GR9Q2-92GK5

VMWare Workstation 10 Keys:

1Z0G9-67285-FZG78-ZL3Q2-234JG
4C4EK-89KDL-5ZFP9-1LA5P-2A0J0
HY086-4T01N-CZ3U0-CV0QM-13DNU
5U4GA-DQ09H-EZK48-YTAQP-83K79
NU4FQ-DFH40-0ZA01-8A37K-32RKL
HF0DA-FF086-VZ739-AA87H-236M4
HF0A8-FMJ1P-1Z1U1-LK1N2-9AGKJ
5A477-D3284-3ZUF0-2K154-23R0P
MY47Y-2MK1M-6ZQC0-7J05M-8A60D
5V6K2-29243-HZDV0-VVA76-93A2R
NA28T-DR114-AZ9Z8-R1250-93U27
MF4JG-4H3DK-NZ3L0-KHCNM-8AMNP
NA6F3-2HKEM-6ZDF8-Q18N6-33DNN
1Y2FZ-AHJ5H-6ZU09-DKA5M-82RQ7
5U6KQ-6M240-LZMW1-U13N2-AAX7X
HA4FW-8G052-DZ8Q0-U295P-83KLV
5F4PK-42181-9ZXP9-T31Q6-1CVKM
JY468-44L9M-DZ479-3UA72-CAKHR
4F6Z5-80H42-FZ889-L007M-ACJJN
5F6E9-DHL4J-HZ640-KLA70-8C0NN

Serial key of vmware workstation 9.0.1:
4A62F-FU00N-VZM78-ZKCQK-8297E
NA2Y9-2ALE1-3ZNX1-10CQ4-0CK77
HU047-DYKE4-ZZPQ8-L02QH-1AZ4W
JZ422-4AKDN-3ZKV8-G2A5P-827PK
4F2MR-D92EH-GZNV8-YLA7H-13YM9
NF6HV-D435L-XZPD9-J817K-CCN58
4Z6C4-DR1E6-KZ4U0-0K15H-0CFPK
JC0ZU-0H150-3ZTR9-DT15P-02N2K
MA2UX-D614Q-CZ7H1-MACN4-82TQZ
JG6UD-4RH9P-GZP59-9V25K-02TP6
MU0XV-F70D7-3ZW58-FH072-1AP59
1F6VP-AQ20J-GZ4U0-NT17P-8305J

Migration From SQL Server To Oracle Using SQL Developer

Migration is the process of copying the schema objects and data from a non-Oracle database, such as MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase Adaptive Server, Microsoft Access, or IBM DB2, to an Oracle database.

To migrate a third-party database to Oracle easily, you can choose the following options using SQL Developer:

– Migrating using the Migration Wizard

– Copying tables to Oracle

Migrating Using the Migration Wizard

The Migration wizard provides a screen to manage all the steps needed for the migration to Oracle database. These steps are as follows:

– Capturing the source database (MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase Adaptive Server, Microsoft Access, IBM DB2),

– Converting it to Oracle format,

– Generating DDL,

– Performing the conversion.

After a brief explanation about the process of migration, let’s do a simple migration from SQL Server database to Oracle database.

1- I created sample SQL Server database named TALIPTEST.

2- The migration repository is a collection of schema objects that SQL Developer uses to manage metadata for migrations. For a migration repository create a database connection to convenient Oracle database and give following grants.

 CREATE USER MIGRATIONS IDENTIFIED BY “migration”

DEFAULT TABLESPACE USERS

TEMPORARY TABLESPACE TEMP;

grant create session to migrations;

grant resource to migrations;

grant create view to migrations;

For multischema migrations, you must grant the privileges with the ADMIN option as follows.

grant resource to migrations with admin option;

grant create role to migrations with admin option;

grant alter any trigger to migrations with admin option;

grant create user to migrations with admin option;

3- Download SQL Developer from http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/sql-developer/downloads/index.html

4- Unzip the file named sqldeveloper-3.2.20.09.87.zip and extract it. Open  sqldeveloper.exe file to open SQL Developer.

5- Right click to the “Connections” and click the “New Connections”

6-  Create a database connection named Migration_Repository that connects to the MIGRATIONS user.

7- Right-click the Migration_Repository connection, and select “Migration Repository” menu , then “Associate Migration Repository” to create the repository.

8- Schema objects needed for migration will be created in MIGRATIONS schema.

9- To connect to third-party database (MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase Adaptive Server,  Microsoft Access, IBM DB2) using SQL Developer, we need jTDS driver. You can download needed jTDS driver from following link. http://sourceforge.net/projects/jtds/files/jtds/1.2/jtds-1.2-dist.zip/download  . Extract the dowloaded zip file named jtds-1.2-dist.zip

10- Click “Tools” and then “Prefenrences”.

11- Select “Third Party JDBC Drivers” and click “Add Entry” button to add jTDS driver for SQL Server.

12- Select jar file located in jTDS driver folder.

13- Click “OK” button.

14- Now you can connect to SQL Server or Sybase database using SQL Developer. Connect to the SQL Server database as follows.

15- And finally, let us create the database connection which we will migrate to.

16- The migration wizard is invoked in a variety of contexts. You can right-click a third-party database connection and select “Migrate to Oracle”  or you can click “Tools>Migration>Migrate…”.

17- Click “Next” button.

18- Select migration repository database connection.

19- Give a name for migration project and select a directory to write output.

20– Select third party database connection. You can migrate database on online or offline mode. If you choose online migration then Migration Wizard will perform all needed operations. If you choose offline migration then Migration Wizard will generate all needed DDL scripts.

21- Select SQL Server database which we want to migrate to Oracle.

22- Specify the conversion options. And click “Advanced Options” link to ensure “Microsoft SQL Server : Is quoted identifier on” option is selected.

23- Select target database connection.

24- If you select offline migration then offline migration script will be generated in the project output directory.

25- Select the connections to be used for online data move.

26- Click “Finish” button so start migration.

27- Migration and conversion process will be perfomed as follows.

Now, Our SQL Server database in Oracle 🙂

Copying tables to Oracle

Right click the table located in third party database and click “Copy To Oracle”

Select destination (Oracle) database connection and click “Apply” button. If you choose “Include Data” check box it will create table structure and move data.

Copy to Oracle database is finished.

Note: This method doesn’t move indexes, triggers, etc. It only moves table structure and data.

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